Vaccination protects against cancer and warts, also Unvaccinated
The world health organization (WHO) aims to eliminate cervical cancer worldwide. In Germany 4500 women are diagnosed annually of this cancer. So far, he is the fourth most common in women – and the first against the trigger, a vaccine exists. Results of a new study show that National vaccination programs against Human papilloma virus (HPV) in young women reduce the risk of cervical cancer significantly.
In addition, unvaccinated groups of the population benefit from the vaccinations indirectly – the so-called herd immunity is the authors of the study, according to visible. Because Vaccinated and the infection is not transmitted, and thus protect others. The extent of the protective effect depends, however, crucially from the respective vaccination programme, as the international team of researchers from the Université Laval in Quebec reported in their study in The journal “The Lancet”.
Warts, tissue changes, and tumors
Human papilloma viruses are globally widespread and can be transmitted during Sex. Some of the more than 200 known virus types cause harmless warts. Other cause more or less malignant changes in tissue, including cervix, vagina, Penis, Anus and in the mouth and throat area. Meanwhile, the viruses are considered to be the main cause of cervical cancer, the HPV variants 16 and 18 cause 70 percent of all cases of the cancer disease.
In 2007, the HPV vaccination has been approved in Germany. A study by the Cochrane Collaboration showed a year ago that it lowers the individual’s risk of infection significantly. Now the Team of Drolet analyzed the impact of national vaccination programmes on a larger level. To do this, it evaluated 65 studies from 14 countries have been, including Germany. Overall, the studies covered about 60 million people.
The researchers compared the periods of time and after the introduction of vaccination, especially in terms of three aspects:
- the development of the HPV infections,
- the diagnosis of warts on the Anus and genitals,
- the diagnoses of moderate to severe tumor precursors.
The results for the period of five to eight years after introduction of vaccination:
- Infections with the dangerous HPV variants 16 and 18 decreased in girls from 13 to 19 years, by an average of 83 percent and in women from 20 to 24 years of age by two-thirds (66 percent).
- The diagnosis of warts on the Anus and genitals fell among girls from 15 to 19 years of age by two-thirds (67 percent), women from 20 to 24 more than half (54 percent) and in women from 25 to 29 approximately one-third (31 percent).
In the case of boys of 15 to 19, the diagnoses fell by half (48 percent) and in men from 20 to 24 years, around a third (32 percent).
- For moderate tumor precursors (so called CIN2 ) were made in the case of girls aged 15 to 19 years, half (51 percent), fewer diagnoses, and among women 20 to 24 years, nearly a third (31 per cent) less.
The strength of the effect depended, however, of the vaccination rate, and whether multiple or only single-year courses were vaccinated. In countries with high vaccination coverage, the diagnoses of warts dropped to the Anus and the genitalia in both sexes at the age of 15 to 19 years by about 87 percent, in addition, 57 percent fewer pre-cancerous cervical have been diagnosed with cancer.
Low vaccination coverage in Germany
In Germany, the vaccination is aimed at a relatively wide range of age groups – children from 9 to 14 years, the vaccination rate in girls is about 45 percent, quite low. In other areas, such as in Scotland, to be achieved up to 90 percent. Meanwhile, the vaccination is also recommended for boys.
“Our results provide strong evidence that the HPV can prevent vaccination actually cervical cancer, because HPV infections, which cause most of the tumors, as well as the precancerous lesions take”, is Drolet cited in a Lancet-release.
Although the study could not prove that the decline in infections and diagnoses goes back actually to the vaccination programmes, acknowledges the Team of the study. This is very likely, since countries recorded higher vaccination coverage greater declines.
A Prime example for the prevention of cancer
The WHO’s goal of eliminating cervical cancer in the world, holds Thomas Harder from the field Impfprävention at the Robert Koch-Institute for the very ambitious, but achievable. However, as the Situation in poorer countries, would have to be reached?
By 2021, nearly 40 such States wanted to hang up vaccination programmes, writes Silvia de Sanjose of the health organization PATH in Seattle in a “Lancet”comment. The present study would help the WHO, HPV-immunization programmes throughout the world, she believes: “The HPV vaccination could be a Prime example for the prevention of cancer in the 21st century Century.”
In Germany, more than 4500 women from cervical cancer, about 1500 die, become ill, according to the centre for cancer registry data per year, every year. Worldwide, he is with approximately 570,000 cases per year, the fourth most common tumor Type in women, in the year 2018, more than 313.000 patients died.